Introduction
Hyperparameter tuning is a notable source of computational cost with deep learning models. One of the most critical hyperparameters is the learning rate of the gradient descent. With too large learning rates, the model does not learn; with too small learning rates, optimization is slow and can lead to local minima and poor generalization [1].
While Adam with its default settings works on a surprisingly large number of problems, it has been shown to display critical failures [2], thus failing as a general default optimization method. This was confirmed in our experiments (see figure below).
We propose All Learning Rates At Once (Alrao), an alteration of standard optimization methods for deep learning models. Alrao uses multiple learning rates at the same time in the same network. By sampling one learning rate per feature, Alrao reaches performance close to the performance of the optimal learning rate, without having to try multiple learning rates. Alrao can be used on top of various optimization algorithms; our experimental results are obtained with Alrao on top of SGD.
The original paper can be found here: arxiv:1810.01322.
The MobileNet architecture is trained with several optimization method : usual SGD for several learning rates in the interval $(10^{5}, 100)$, Adam with its default hyperparameters, and Alrao with learning rates sampled in the interval $(10^{5}, 100)$. We observe that by sampling randomly the learning rates in the model, the performance are close to the optimal learning rates.
Alrao could be useful when testing architectures: an architecture could first be trained with Alrao to obtain an approximation of the performance it would have with an optimal learning rate. Then it would be possible to select a subset of promising architectures based on Alrao, and search for the best learning rate on those architectures, finetuning with any optimizer.
Our Pytorch implementation is here : github.com/leonardblier/alrao. It can be used with a wide set of architecture. In particular, here is a link to our stepbystep tutorial on how to use Alrao : github.com/leonardblier/alrao/tutorial.ipynb
Motivation.
Alrao was inspired by the intuition that not all units in a neural network end up being useful. Hopefully, in a large enough network, a subnetwork made of units with a good learning rate could learn well, and hopefully the units with a wrong learning rate will just be ignored. (Units with a too large learning rate may produce large activation values, so this assumes the model has some form of protection against those, such as BatchNorm or sigmoid/tanh activations.)
Several lines of work support the idea that not all units of a network are useful or need to be trained, for example on pruning trained networks [3, 4, 5, 6], or the lottery ticket hypothesis [7].
Viewing the perfeature learning rates of Alrao as part of the initialization, this hypothesis suggests there might be enough subnetworks whose initialization leads to good convergence.
All Learning Rates At Once: Description
Alrao: principle.
Alrao starts with a standard optimization method such as SGD, and a range of possible learning rates $(\eta_{\min}, \eta_{\max})$. Instead of using a single learning rate, we sample once and for all one learning rate for each feature, randomly sampled loguniformly in $(\eta_{\min}, \eta_{\max})$. Then these learning rates are used in the usual optimization update:
where $\theta_{l,i}$ is the set of parameters used to compute the feature $i$ of layer $l$ from the activations of layer $l1$ (the incoming weights of feature $i$). Thus we build “slowlearning” and “fastlearning” features, in the hope to get enough features in the “Goldilocks zone”.
What constitutes a feature depends on the type of layers in the model. For example, in a fully connected layer, each component of a layer is considered as a feature: all incoming weights of the same unit share the same learning rate. On the other hand, in a convolutional layer we consider each convolution filter as constituting a feature: there is one learning rate per filter (or channel), thus keeping translationinvariance over the input image.
However, the update cannot be used directly in the last layer. For instance, for regression there may be only one output feature. For classification, each feature in the final classification layer represents a single category, and so using different learning rates for these features would favor some categories during learning. Instead, on the output layer we chose to duplicate the layer using several learning rate values, and use a (Bayesian) model averaging method to obtain the overall network output
Definitions and notation.
We now describe Alrao more precisely for deep learning models with softmax output, on classification tasks (the case of regression is similar).
Let , with , be a classification dataset. The goal is to predict the $y_{i}$ given the $x_{i}$, using a deep learning model $\Phi_{\theta}$. For each input $x$, $\Phi_{\theta}(x)$ is a probability distribution over , and we want to minimize the categorical crossentropy loss $\ell$ over the dataset:
A deep learning model for classification $\Phi_{\theta}$ is made of two parts: a preclassifier $\phi_{\theta^{\text{pc}}}$ which computes some quantities fed to a final classifier layer $C_{\theta^{\text{c}}}$, namely, $\Phi_{\theta}(x)=C_{\theta^{\text{cl}}}(\phi_{\theta^{\text{pc}}}(x))$. The classifier layer $C_{\theta^{\text{c}}}$ with $K$ categories is defined by $C_{\theta^{\text{c}}} = \text{softmax}\circ\left(W^{T}x + b\right)$ with $\theta^{\text{cl}} = (W, b)$.The preclassifier is a computational graph composed of any number of layers, and each layer is made of multiple features.
We denote $\log U(\cdot ; \eta_{\min}, \eta_{\max})$ the loguniform probability distribution on an interval $(\eta_{\min}, \eta_{\max})$: namely, if $\eta \sim \log U(\cdot ; \eta_{\min}, \eta_{\max})$, then $\log \eta$ is uniformly distributed between $\log \eta_{\min}$ and $\log \eta_{\max}$.
Alrao for the preclassifier: A random learning rate for each feature.
In the preclassifier, for each feature $i$ in each layer $l$, a learning rate $\eta_{l,i}$ is sampled from the probability distribution $\log U(.; \eta_{\min}, \eta_{\max})$, once and for all at the beginning of training. Then the incoming parameters of each feature in the preclassifier are updated in the usual way with this learning rate.
Alrao for the classifier layer: Model averaging from classifiers with different learning rates.
In the classifier layer, we build multiple clones of the original classifier layer, set a different learning rate for each, and then use a model averaging method from among them (see figure below). The averaged classifier and the overall Alrao model are:
where the are copies of the original classifier layer, with nontied parameters, and . The $a_{j}$ are the parameters of the model averaging, and are such that for all $j$, $0 \leq a_{j} \leq 1$, and $\sum_{j}a_{j} = 1$. These are not updated by gradient descent, but via the switch model averaging method (see below).
Left: a standard fully connected neural network for a classification task with three classes, made of a preclassifier and a classifier layer. Right: Alrao version of the same network. The single classifier layer is replaced with a set of parallel copies of the original classifier, averaged with a model averaging method. Each unit uses its own learning rate for its incoming weights (represented by different styles of arrows).
For each classifier , we set a learning rate , so that the classifiers’ learning rates are loguniformly spread on the interval .
Thus, the original model $\Phi_{\theta}(x)$ leads to the Alrao model $\Phi^{\text{Alrao}}_{\theta}(x)$$. Only the classifier layer is modified, the preclassifier architecture being unchanged.
The Alrao update.
The updates for the preclassifier, classifier, and model averaging weights are as follows.

The update rule for the preclassifier is the usual SGD one, with perfeature learning rates. For each feature $i$ in each layer $l$, its incoming parameters are updated as:

The parameters $\theta^{\text{cl}}_j$ of each classifier clone $j$ on the classifier layer are updated as if this classifier alone was the only output of the model:
(still sharing the same preclassifier $\phi_{\theta^{\text{pc}}}$). This ensures classifiers with low weights $a_j$ still learn, and is consistent with model averaging philosophy. Algorithmically this requires differentiating the loss $N_{\text{cl}}$ times with respect to the last layer (but no additional backpropagations through the preclassifier).

To set the weights $a_j$, several model averaging techniques are available, such as Bayesian Model Averaging. We decided to use the Switch model averaging [8], a Bayesian method which is both simple, principled and very responsive to changes in performance of the various models.
Experiments
Here we only present our results on image classification. Additional results on recurrent learning can be found in the paper.
We used the CIFAR10 dataset with GoogLeNet, MobileNet and VGG19 networks. The Alrao learning rates were sampled loguniformly from $\eta_{\min} = 10^{5}$ to $\eta_{\max} = 10$. We compare these results to the same models trained with SGD for every learning rate in the set . We also compare to Adam with its default hyperparameters ($\eta=10^{3}, \beta_1 = 0.9, \beta_2 = 0.999$). More details on these experiments can be found in the paper.
Below are the learning curves
MobileNet GoogLeNet
We can also look at the influence of the hyperparameters $\eta_\min$ and $\eta_\max$ on Alrao performance (See figure below).
Performance of Alrao with a GoogLeNet model, depending on the interval $(\eta_\min, \eta_\max)$. Left: loss on the train set; right: on the test set. Each point with coordinates $(\eta_\min, \eta_\max)$ above the diagonal represents the loss after 30 epochs for Alrao with this interval. Points $(\eta, \eta)$ on the diagonal represent standard SGD with learning rate $\eta$ after 50 epochs. Standard SGD with $\eta = 10^2$ is left blank to due numerical divergence (NaN). Alrao works as soon as $(\eta_\min, \eta_\max)$ contains at least one suitable learning rate.
As expected, Alrao performs slightly worse than the best learning rate. Still, even with wide intervals $(\eta_\min, \eta_\max)$, Alrao comes reasonably close to the best learning rate, across all setups; hence Alrao’s possible use as a quick assessment method. Although Adam with its default parameters almost matches optimal SGD, this is not always the case, for example with the MobileNet model. This confirms a known risk of overfit with Adam [9]. In our setup, Alrao seems to be a more stable default method.
Conclusion
Applying stochastic gradient descent with random learning rates for different features is surprisingly resilient in our experiments, and provides performance close enough to SGD with an optimal learning rate, as soon as the range of random learning rates contains a suitable one. This could save time when testing deep learning models, opening the door to more outofthebox uses of deep learning.
References
[1] S. Jastrzebski, Z. Kenton, D. Arpit, N. Ballas, A. Fischer, Y. Bengio, and A. Storkey. Three factors influencing minima in sgd. arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.04623, 2017.
[2] A. C. Wilson, R. Roelofs, M. Stern, N. Srebro, and B. Recht. The marginal value of adaptive gradient methods in machine learning. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 2017.
[3] Y. LeCun, J. S. Denker, and S. A. Solla. Optimal brain damage. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2, 1990
[4] S. Han, H. Mao, and W. J. Dally. Deep Compression: Compressing Deep Neural Networks with Pruning, Trained Quantization and Huffman Coding. arXiv preprint arXiv:1510.00149, 2015.
[5] S. Han, J. Pool, J. Tran, and W. J. Dally. Learning both Weights and Connections for Efficient Neural Networks. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 2015.
[6] A. See, M.T. Luong, and C. D. Manning. Compression of Neural Machine Translation Models via Pruning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.09274, 2016.
[7] J. Frankle and M. Carbin. The Lottery Ticket Hypothesis: Finding Small, Trainable Neural Networks. arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.04861, mar 2018.
[8] T. Van Erven, P. Grünwald, and S. De Rooij. Catching up faster by switching sooner: A predictive approach to adaptive estimation with an application to the AICBIC dilemma. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B , 2012.
[9] A. C. Wilson, R. Roelofs, M. Stern, N. Srebro, and B. Recht. The marginal value of adaptive gradient methods in machine learning. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 2